Archive for December, 2011

Introduction

Tuesday, December 6th, 2011

My name is Julia, and as part of my freshman seminar course, I am completing this blog about the scientist Mimi Koehl. I chose Dr. Koehl because biomechanics is interesting to me and will most likely be my major, and I wanted to know more about one of the more prominent scientists in this field.

Please feel free to look around and ask questions; you can always contact me if you would like something clarified or would like more information.

Welcome, and happy exploring!

 

All About Elizabeth Blackwell by Lauren Grant

Thursday, December 1st, 2011

My name is Lauren Grant and this blog is a project for the University of Mary Washington.  In this project I will focus on the life and career of Elizabeth Blackwell.

 

Elizabeth Blackwell was born in the 1800′s when women were rarely even allowed a proper education, let alone a career.  Her religious family, however, believed that all people were equal and gave her an excellent education and raised her to believe that everyone deserved respect and equal opportunity.  As an adult, she became the first woman physician and set groundbreaking pathways for future women in the medical field.

 

I was drawn towards researching Elizabeth Blackwell because I am interested in pursuing a medical career and I found her story to be inspiring and hoped to gain insight from her life.

 

Elizabeth Blackwell went on to try and fail almost thirty times to enter a medical college after deciding medicine was her calling in life.  After finally being accepted to a college as a practical joke, Elizabeth was able to attain her degree, but not without many hardships to overcome, mostly revolving around her gender as a female.

Elizabeth Blackwell is honored with the privilege of being the first recognized female doctor. She was the first woman to receive a medical degree.  She set up a hospital for women, run by women nurses and doctors to help women patients feel more at ease, as well as a college for women to study medicine, although it was only open for thirty years.  In her later life- Elizabeth taught at a college in England and continued to inspire women to advance in their chosen field of work. One of her mentionable successes was her push for hygienic awareness. She tried to spread the word that poor health was not due to an angry god or bad luck, but rather due to unsanitary habits, which took a toll on the body.  She realized well before many other doctors that illness treatment and prevention rested solely on sanitary habits.

Elizabeth Blackwell had to work harder than any man to earn the recognition and success that she did.  Her life revolved around her fierce desire to help women progress into the field of medical work.  Elizabeth’s beliefs were not the stereotypical harsh feminist beliefs that her other aspiring colleges possessed.   Elizabeth used her femininity and nurturing to her advantage.  She believed that a woman’s instinct to care was what made women better suited for the medical field.  She wanted all of her students to aspire to heal and cure the sick as a doctor would, not take care of them while they were ill as was a nurse’s job.   Elizabeth used her medical education and work as a barrier to keep her protected from marriage and the possibility or dependence on a man. She never married but did adopt an Irish orphan whom she raised by herself.

I believe that Elizabeth Blackwell is a role model that anyone could relate to.  The judgments and barriers she had to push through to become the famous and successful FIRST woman doctor are tremendous.  Her perseverance is something to be admired, but her success is almost unimaginable for the time period in which she lived.  As a role model, she never denied her womanhood or was ashamed of her gender, she worked as hard an anyone despite the obstacles that society placed upon her and she took steps to create places where other women could achieve their goals as a doctor.  I think she would have been honored to be a role model, in that time period as well as in ours.

 

In the 1800’s, a male counterpart to Elizabeth Blackwell was a French physician named Rene Laennec.  I selected this man to study because he displayed many similar characteristics to Elizabeth Blackwell and because they were born in roughly the same time period.

 

Like Blackwell, Rene Laennec was European his career boasted positions of professor, doctor, and running a health clinic.  Despite their difference in gender, Laennec and Blackwell were both exceptional doctors who made impacts on society and the health profession.

 

Gender did influence the careers of these two physicians.  Had they had careers today, gender would not have affected their success or acceptance in to the medical community, however because of the bias towards male professionals in the 1800’s, Elizabeth Blackwell received less opportunity and recognition for her work.  Laennec was accepted in the medical community and didn’t have to fight for a place at a medical college like Blackwell did because she was a female.  Gender affected the success of both physicians because Blackwell, unlike Laennec, was much more hard pressed to find clients, preventing her medical practice and college from succeeding in the long term.

 

The Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) was
formed in 1969 and still exists.  Its mission was to “improve and promote the health of women and newborns and to strengthen the nursing profession through delivery of superior advocacy”

Core Values (as expressed in the acronym “CARING”)

ò Commitment to professional and social responsibility

ò Accountability for personal and professional contributions

ò Respect for diversity of and among colleagues and clients

ò Integrity in exemplifying the highest standards in personal and professional behavior

ò Nursing Excellence for quality outcomes in practice, education, research, advocacy and management

ò Generation of Knowledge to enhance the science and practice of nursing to improve the health of women and newborns

This association provides support and career advancement to women in the medical field, particularly nurses.   It is a good source of encouragement and advocate for equal rights for women regardless of area of medical work.

 

I believe that Elizabeth Blackwell would definitely join this organization because: she too, sought to create institutions that would focus on benefitting women and children; she would have wanted a support center to help her in her male-dominated world and she believed in women’s right to advance their careers.  Elizabeth would have wanted this association to help pursue women’s equal opportunity to enter medical schools and provide support for women trying to create their own practices and medical hospitals.

 

Elizabeth Blackwell is honored with the privilege of being the first recognized female doctor in the US.  Elizabeth Blackwell had to work harder than any man to earn the recognition and success that she did.  Her life revolved around her fierce desire to help women progress into the field of medical work.  Elizabeth’s beliefs were not the stereotypical harsh feminist beliefs that her other aspiring colleges possessed.   Elizabeth used her femininity and nurturing to her advantage.  She believed that a woman’s instinct to care was what made women better suited for the medical field.  She was also not fond of nurses.   She wanted all of her students to aspire to heal and cure the sick, not take care of them while they were ill.  Elizabeth set up a college for women going into the medical field and also, along with her sister and a friend, set up a woman-run hospital in New York.  Although she used to hate medical work, her change in heart led her to tremendous success.  One of her mentionable successes was her push for hygienic awareness. She tried to spread the word that poor health was not due to an angry god or bad luck, but rather due to unsanitary habits, which took a toll on the body.  She realized well before many other doctors that illness treatment and prevention rested solely on sanitary habits.

Primary Source:

1)   Blackwell, Elizabeth. “Ship Fever”. The Western Journal of Medicine and Surgery 1840-1949. Pp. 347

 

Secondary Source:

2)   Wirtzfeld, Debrah A., “The History of Women in Surgery”, Can J Surg, Vol. 52, No. 4, Pp317-318

3)   Morantz-Sanchez, Regina. “Feminist Theory and Historical Practice: Rereading Elizabeth Blackwell”, History and Theory, Vol. 31, No. 4  1992, pp 51-60

4)   Borst, Charlotte. “As Patients and Healers: The History of Women and Medicine”, OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 19, No. 5 2005, pp 23-26

5)   Monteiro, Lois A., “On Separate Roads: Florence Nightingale and Elizabeth Blackwell”, Signs Vol. 9, No. 3 1984: pp 520-533

6)   Morantz, Regina Markell. “Feminism, Professionalism, and Germs: The Thought of Mary Putnam Jacobi and Elizabeth Blackwell” American Quarterly Vol. 35, No. 5 1982. Pp 459-478

 

Borst, Charlotte. “As Patients and Healers: The History of Women and Medicine”, OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 19, No. 5 2005, pp 23-26

 

Borst’s article told of the success and accomplishments of Elizabeth Blackwell throughout her medical career.  Borst explained Blackwell’s thoughts on why women should be treated by other female doctors, on Blackwell’s belief that women’s nurturing nature was better suited for the medical practice and on the continuing progress made in female medical education since Blackwell’s push for equality.  Borst writes that Blackwell broke through the stereotypes of the era and forged a new path for ambitious women, including her younger sister who went on to be a doctor as well.

 

Borst’s article, though focused on women in medicine throughout all of history, managed to focus a great deal of deserved attention to Elizabeth Blackwell who’s contributions to the medical field were of great importance.

 

Wirtzfeld, Debrah A., “The History of Women in Surgery”, Can J Surg, Vol. 52, No. 4, Pp317-318

 

Wirtzfeld gave an over view of the events which inspired Elizabeth Blackwell to pursue medical work though she had been denied for over 20 schools due to her gender.  She described Blackwell’s actions upon being accepted to a medical college in New York.   Blackwell opened a college of medicine for women and was an advocate of interpersonal relationships in the doctor-patient relationship.  Wirtzfeld stated that Blackwell was an inspiration to all women pursuing careers in fields that posed a challenge.  Blackwell eventually was honored as the fit woman Medical Doctor in the US In 1889, says Wirzfeld, and there is now an award given in her name.

 

Wirtzfeld’s article, though giving only a an overview of many women medical doctors, did do a good job in briefly outlining the influences for Blackwell and Blackwell’s achievements.

 

Blackwell, Elizabeth. “Ship Fever”. The Western Journal of Medicine and Surgery 1840-1949. Pp. 347

 

Elizabeth Blackwell discussed her experiences in dealing with a Typhus epidemic.  She described how the epidemic was largely brought to the United States by poor, Irish immigrants.  In her article, Blackwell talked about the possible ways a person could be infected with the disease, how the disease presented itself, describes the symptoms, treatments and precautions to take so as not to be infected.  She detailed impressively the symptoms, effects, precautions and causes for the disease.  Blackwell went so far as to describe her autopsy findings and conclusions about the progression of the disease.  She strongly argued that hygienic means were the best way to recover and prevent the disease.

 

Blackwell’s article was well written and conveyed in an understandable way and spoke volumes about her methods of healing, dedication to progress and was informative.

 

Monteiro, Lois A., “On Separate Roads: Florence Nightingale and Elizabeth Blackwell”, Signs Vol. 9, No. 3 1984: pp 520-533

 

Montiero’s article focuses mainly on the relationship and divergent paths of Elizabeth Blackwell and Florence Nightingale.  Montiero provides that Blackwell was the first American female physician.  She also says that Blackwell contributed to a major breakthrough in the fight for women’s rights in England and the US.  Montiero discussed the long seven year battle that Blackwell waged after graduating medical school to begin her own practice and hopefully woman-run hospital.  She explained in simple yet informative detail Blackwell’s goals for her hospital.  She states that Blackwell wanted to teach women how to be doctors, treat the sick and cure the ill.  Blackwell’s goals were not to have women caring for the sick and making a healthier environment for the sick.

 

Montiero’s article was a fairly good resource for insights into Elizabeth Blackwell’s personality and goals for her hospital.

 

Morantz, Regina Markell. “Feminism, Professionalism, and Germs: The Thought of Mary Putnam Jacobi and Elizabeth Blackwell” American Quarterly Vol. 35, No. 5 1982. Pp 459-478

 

Morantz’s article discusses the mindset of Elizabeth Blackwell and her colleague who’s mindset was far harsher than Blackwell’s.  Morantz says that Blackwell was a “sanitarian” and believed that poor health was not the punishment of God, but rather the effect of poor hygiene and could be controlled by living in a healthier way.  As Morantz states, the major concerns for Blackwell were how women would fit into the medical field and how physicians would adapt to society.

 

Morantz’s article was informative however not well organized and it’s effectiveness of providing information on Blackwell.

 

Morantz-Sanchez, Regina. “Feminist Theory and Historical Practice: Rereading Elizabeth Blackwell”, History and Theory, Vol. 31, No. 4  1992, pp 51-60

 

Sanchez states in her article that Blackwell was more prone to “relativity” than “objectivity” which was the practice that was becoming more and more widely taught and used.  She states that Blackwell believed that the objectivity of medicine and the relationship between doctor and patient was dangerous and materialistic and too rationalistic.  Blackwell surprisingly guessed correctly that objectivity would become the norm by the end of the century.   Sanchez tells that Blackwell’s belief was that there was God-given attributes in females and emphasized that there were differences between men and women.  Sanchez points out that Blackwell was America’s first woman doctor, a huge feat, and used her influence to help bring social change about for women.  Sanchez informs her audience that Blackwell believed in individual treatment per patient and that sanitary habits were important.

 

Sanchez’s article was extremely well written and provided a plethora of well organized information on the practices, life, beliefs and knowledge of Elizabeth Blackwell.

Caroline Arnold: Beauty and Brains Blog

Thursday, December 1st, 2011

My name is Caroline Arnold and the woman scientist I have selected to research is Grace Murray Hopper. She is known as “the Mother of the COBOL” and “Amazing Grace.” Grace Brewster Murray was born on December 9,1906 in New York City. She was the oldest of three kids. Throughout her childhood, Grace always was curious about mechanics and machinery. At age seven, her curiosity led her to take apart the alarm clocks in her house so she could figure out and discover how they tick. Grace studied math and physics at Vassar College in 1924 then went on to continue her studies at Yale. While working her first job as a teacher at Vassar College, she met and married her husband, Vincent Hopper. Grace had a family history of serving in the military. In 1943, during World War II, she joined the U.S. Navy. In 1944, she was positioned as a lieutenant and assigned to the Bureau of Ordinance Computation Project at Harvard University. She worked on the first full-scale digital computer. After serving in the Navy, Grace felt the need to move on and begin to work jobs that were more computer-science oriented. She continued to help develop the COBOL (Common Business- Oriented Language). Her invention is appreciated enormously because it is still used today. COBOL is a software system of language that is more easily understood rather than a person having to interpret mathematical notations. COBOL is still used today and is a huge factor that helps keep businesses running. Throughout her life, Grace’s intelligence and skill with computers led her to be very successful and receive over 65 honors and awards. Grace is “remembered as a charming, tiny, white-haired lady in a Navy Uniform by her comrades and students, she was a feisty, brilliant leader with a passion for change” (Orlando “An Inspirational Teacher” 28).  She died on January 1, 1992 in Arlington, Virginia and was buried with full Naval honors. Her work, intelligence, and inventions are and will be appreciated by many people all over the world.

 

I view Grace Hoppers, the female computer scientist who I chose to research, as a true role model and inspiration for many reasons. She had strong a passion and incredible dedication to her work as a computer scientist and Navy lieutenant. She was devoted to her jobs and tasks throughout her entire life. She was willing to give one hundred percent to prove her point. For example, the male co-workers that Grace worked with believed it would be impossible for Grace to invent the computer programming system, “COBOL.” However, after much time and dedication spent, she was able to pull through and create, “COBOL,” which resulted to be a remarkable invention that is still used today! Grace is an inspiration and should be admired for serving in the US Navy in the 1940s during World War II. Hoppers also served from 1967-1986 because the Navy was so impressed by her work and intelligence so they decided to reactivate her. When she retired from the Navy in 1986, at age 80, she was recognized as the oldest active duty officer in the U.S. Navy. Grace had a great love for her country. She was also a very intelligent and outstanding leader. Grace Hoppers should be qualified as a true role model to all women.

 

Grace Hoppers received over 65 awards and honors in her lifetime. Here is a list of some of Hopper’s major recognitions:

  •   1946—Naval Ordinance Development Award
  •   1962—Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
  •   1964—Society of Women Engineers, SWE Achievement Award
  •   1968—Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Philadelphia Section Achievement Award
  •   1969—Data Processing Mgmt. Assoc., Computer Science “Man Of The Year” Award
  •   1970—American Federation of Information Processing Societies, Harry Goode Memorial Award
  •   1972—Wilbur Lucas Cross Medal, Yale University
  •   1972—Fellow, Association of Computer Programmers and Analysts
  •   1973—Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society
  •   1976—Honorary Doctor of Science, Pratt Institute
  •   1980—Navy Meritorious Service Medal
  •   1983—Federally Employed Women Achievement Award
  • 1983—Living Legacy Award, Women’s International Center, San Diego
grace-hopper.jpg

grace-hopper.jpghttp://www.thewatchmakerproject.com/images/uploads/grace-hopper.jpg

 

The male scientist I chose to research to compare my female scientist, Grace Hopper, to is Alan Turring. I chose to research Alan Turing because he was a famous scientist within the computer science and mathematics field. Another reason I chose to research Alan Turing was because was born only six years after Grace Hopper. I thought it would be appropriate to research a male scientist that was alive and worked in about the same era as my female scientist. Alan Turing and Grace Hopper were both very interesting people to research and present information about.

 

Comparing and contrasting my scientists that I chose to research:

Grace Hopper

  • 1906-1992
  • Born and raised in New York
  • Had supporting parents during childhood
  • Education: Vassar College, Yale University
  • Science field: computer scientist
  • Worked in the war, World War II as computer scientist
  • Worked on “Mark I” computer at Harvard
  • Invented the COBOL system
  • Received over 65 honors and awards in her lifetime

 

Alan Turing

  • 1912-1954
  • Born and raised in London
  • Parents put him and his brother in foster homes. His parents did not support him during his life.
  • Education: Sherborne School, King’s College
  • Science field: mathematics and computer science
  • Worked in the war, World War II, to help break the Enigma codes used by the Nazis
  • Answered the question “Entscheidungsproblem” and clarified that there is no single method that can solve all mathematical problems
  • Invented the Turing Machine
  • On June 7, 1954- committed suicide by eating an apple that contained cyanide

 

I believe that gender definitely influences the career of any computer scientist. The male species dominates the computer science population. Therefore, male scientists are more easily recognized and publicly known. Grace Hopper put her heart into working on her inventions and projects as a computer scientist which allowed her to receive over 65 honors and awards. However, when researching both scientists, I found there was much more information provided about Alan Turing. There were multiple books and articles written about Alan Turing, however, when finding information about Grace Hopper, I was only able to find a few articles. It is true that Alan Turing was a incredible scientist and invented outstanding technology, however, I believe that Grace Hopper should be just as publicly recognized as he is. In conclusion, gender influences the careers of computer scientists and allows men to succeed more efficiently and be more widely credited than females.

 

Here is a link to an interesting article I discovered that explains and discusses the male to female ratio in the computer science field. Feel free to read and enjoy!

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/16/business/16digi.html

 

Hello! My name is Caroline Arnold and I have previously posted about the female scientist, Grace Hopper, and about comparing the computer scientists Alan Turning and Grace Hopper. I am writing this blog for my Freshman Seminar class called “Beauty and Brains- Women in the Sciences.”

Last week I presented to my class about an organization called ACM-W, which stands for Association for Computer Machinery for women. This organization was formed in the late 1980s as a branch or sub-organization of ACM, which was founded in 1947. This organization currently consists of 15,005 members. It also consists of the ACM-W council and the ACM-W executive board. The primary mission of ACM-W is to celebrate, inform, and support women in computing and to improve working and learning environments for women. It also allows the representation of women in computer science to be more equal and fair.

Considering that Grace Hopper was a female computer scientist, I definitely think it is likely that she would belong to this organization. She faced many hardships being a female in the computer science field, however, always put up a strong fight and gave one hundred percent to her work. I believe Grace Hopper would join this organization to help spread information about females in the computer science field and to encourage other females to peruse this career. She would be an excellent and effective member of the ACM-W because this organization definitely supports her views and interests.

Works Cited

(Annotated Bibliography)

Primary Sources

Bairstow, Jeffrey. “The sayings of Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper, USN.” Laser

Focus World 46.7 (2010): 76. Computers & Applied Sciences Complete. EBSCO. Web. 12 Sept. 2011. The quotes that are included in this article will be used as a primary source. The quotes display Hopper’s passionate personality. They characterize Hopper to be a notable and smart leader. By reading these quotes, it is obvious that being in the Navy as a computer scientist caused Hoppers to be a tenacious and admirable woman. Hoppers was willing to take risks and be a leader.

Secondary Sources

Barker, Colin. “100 Years of Grace Hopper.” CNET News. Dec. 8, 2006. Web. 12 Sept.

2011. Barker’s article gives information about Hopper’s invention, COBOL (Common Business- Oriented Language). He discusses that Hopper in known as “the mother of COBOL.” Her invention is appreciated enormously because it is still used today. COBOL is a software system of language that is more easily understood rather than a person having to interpret mathematical notations. COBOL is still used today and is a huge factor that helps keep businesses running.

Borg, Anita and Whitney, Telle. “The Grace Hopper Celebration.” Communications of

the ACM 38.1 (1995): 50-51. Computers & Applied Sciences Complete. EBSCO. Web. 12 Sept. 2011. This source will be used to discuss the “Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing.” The Grace Hopper Celebration was a computing conference that took place to increase diversity in the computing field. Women were able to get together and discuss their jobs and passion for working in the computing field. It is known that women are a minority in the computer field. The Grace Hopper Celebration was created to fix that problem, increase diversity, and allow women to feel a sense of comfort with their jobs.

Orlando, Maria. “Amazing Grace.” Poptronics 3.7 (2002): 26. Computers & Applied

            Sciences Complete. EBSCO. Web. 12 Sept. 2011. This article admires Hoppers

for her outstanding work. Orlando notes Hoppers to be “the patriot”, “an inspirational teacher”, and “a futurist and a pioneer.” This article includes a sample of the honors and awards Hoppers received in her life. Orlando’s article mentions many uplifting remarks of Hopper’s dedication, work, and creations that gives a sense of high praise towards her.

Sammet, Jean E. “Farewell to Grace Hopper-End of an Era!.” Communications of the

ACM 35.4 (1992): 128-131. Computers & Applied Sciences Complete. EBSCO. Web. 12 Sept. 2011. Sammet’s article mentions how Hopper had a true love and appreciation for the Navy. This source makes known that Hopper was one of the greatest women in the computer field. Hopper’s involvement with her career, such as joining the Harvard faculty as a research fellow in engineering sciences, Navy service, and being involved with ACM is discussed in this source. Sammet mentions being in attendance at Hopper’s funeral and being fascinated by the number of people who also attended and were inspired by her.

Tertiary Sources

“Grace Murray Hopper.” Notable Women Scientists. Gale Group Inc. 1999. Print. This

source gives a brief summary of Hopper’s life. It includes information about Hopper becoming a computer scientist and her work in the Navy. While working as a computer scientist in the Navy, Hopper was fully committed and determined with her studies. This source mentions her creation and development of COBOL, the first English language programming system.

Other Sources

Gray, Paul. “Alan Turing. (Cover story).” Time 153.12 (1999): 147. Academic Search              Complete. EBSCO. Web. 24 Oct. 2011.

Stross, Randal. “What Has Driven Women Out of Computer Science?”. The New York             Times. November 15, 2008. Web. 24 October 2011.

ACM-W. Elaine Weyuker. Web. 14 Nov. 2011. <http://women.acm.org/>.

Borg, Anita and Whitney, Telle. “The Grace Hopper Celebration.”   Communications ofthe ACM 38.1 (1995): 50-51. Computers   & Applied Sciences Complete. EBSCO.   Web. 13 Nov.   2011.

Weyuker, Elaine. “ACM-W Celebrates Women In Computing.”   Communications Of  The ACM 52.6 (2009): 5. Academic   Search Complete. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.

Roger Arliner Young, combined post

Thursday, December 1st, 2011

Roger Arliner Young was the first African American woman to receive a doctorate in zoology.  She faced many difficulties including juggling research, teaching, and caring for her ill mother.  She entered Howard University in 1916 and studied biology under Dr. Ernest Just.  She graduated with her bachelors degree in 1923.  When Young entered the University of Chicago she began publishing her research.  “On the Excretory Apparatus in Paramecium,” appeared in Science in September 1924.  By 1926, Young obtained her Master’s Degree.    She spent the summer working for Just at a Marine Biological Laboratory in Massachusetts. Here they conducted research on the fertilization process in marine organisms and the dehydration and hydration in living cells.  Her relationship with Just continued to grow as well as her knowledge and  expertise.  She stood in as the head of the Howard zoology department while Just was working in Europe.  Young returned to the University of Chicago to get her PhD, however she failed her qualifying exams.  The stress was getting to her.  Not only was she broke but she had to continue to care for her ill mother and continue her studies, this stress led to mental instability.

Young continued to teach at Howard University until she was fired for missing class and mistreatment of lab equipment.   She took this opportunity to attend University of Pennsylvania and to begin a doctorate under L. V. Heilbrunn.  She continued on and worked at many different Universities, however her mental health continued to fail.  She was placed in the Mississippi State Mental Asylum.  Unfortunately, she died poor and alone on November 9, 1964.

First African American woman to receive a Ph.D in zoology.

She did not receive any awards.  However, she was still successful.

>She published three works in prestigious science magazines including:

“On the Excretory Apparatus in Paramecium”

“Indirect Effects of Radiation on Sea Urchin Eggs” co-authored with L. V. Heilbrunn

“The Indirect Effects of Roetgen Rays on Certain Marine Eggs”

 

>She taught at many universities including:

-North Carolina College for Negros in Raleigh

-Jackson State College in Mississippi

Role model behavior:

I believe Dr. Roger Arliner Young would be comfortable as a role model because she displayed determination and persistence through difficult times.  Her mentor, Ernest Everette Just had an impact on her life and I believe she would like to be able to use her love of zoology and biology to influence and encourage upcoming scientists.

Young was able to keep up with her studies, work summers at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts and care for her ill mother.  She continued to work through mental instability and persevered through difficult circumstances.

Ernest Everett Just v. Roger Arliner Young

Ernest Everett Just was born was born August 14, 1883 in Charleston, South Carolina and died October 27, 1941 in Washington D.C.  Just specialized in zoology, biology, and physiology, but had special honors in botany and history, and honors in sociology.  He prepared for college at Kimball Hall Academy, in New Hampshire, where he completed the four-year course of study in only three years.  He graduated magna cum laude from Dartmouth College in 1907. In 1916, Dr. Just graduated magna cum laude from University of Chicago receiving his doctorate in experimental embryology, with a thesis on the mechanics offertilization.

 

I chose Ernest Everett Just to compare to Roger Arliner Young because of his influence on her life, his success, and study of science.  If you recall from the previous information, Just was Young’s first science professor and mentor and they worked closely together at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.  They both received up to a PhD attended Howard University.  Just’s influence and close working environments were two contributing factors my choice in male scientists.

 

Ernest Everett Just Roger Arliner Young
Education Bachelor’s,Master’s, PhD in experimental embryology from the University of Chicago. Bachelor’s, Master’s, PhD in Zoology from the University of Pennsylvania.
Positions Head of the Department of Zoology and Department of Physiology, Member of the Marine Biological Laboratory. Professor, Member of the Marine Biological Laboratory
Awards and Recognition Recipient of the first Spingarn Medal (1915) for his research in Biology (NAACP), Postage Stamp No awards or recognition
Publications Published more than sixty published articles in scientific journals, He published two books, The Biology of the Cell Surface (1939) and Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals(1939). ”On the Excretory Apparatus in Paramecium,” ”Indirect Effects of Radiation on Sea Urchin Eggs,” and ”The Indirect Effects of Roetgen Rays on Certain Marine Eggs.
Family influcence No family influence Forced to care for her invalid mother, in many instances her grades suffered.

Gender

I believe gender ender did not influence Roger Arliner Young’s career nor Ernest Everett Just’s.  Both were successful because of their hard work and discoveries.  Just published over 60 articles and wrote two books.  His colleges also trusted his opinion and had him edit many of their works.  In the long run, Dr. Just was more successful in his findings, and published more works, however this was purely based off of individual motivation.  If anything, Young was influenced most by her family.  If she was not caring for her mother, she may have been able to commit more time to the sciences.

 

Society of Women Engineers:

Society of Women Engineers was established in 1950.

There are nearly 20,000. It divides the United States into ten regions.

The SWE’s primary mission is to encourage women engineers to attain high levels of education and professional achievement.

Would Roger Arliner Young Join?

No, Roger Arliner Young would not join because she was a Zoologist and this organization is specifically for engineers.

However, this does support her views regarding education.  Young was a college professor at many different universities which shows she is interesting in education students so they can be successful in the science field.

A project Young would encourage is bringing engineering to the students in K-12 classrooms.  This encourages female students to per sue careers in science and that is exactly what Young worked toward.

 

Works Cited

Bellis, Mary. “Ernest Just – Egg Fertilization and Ernest Just.” Inventors. About.com. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://inventors.about.com/od/ijstartinventors/a/Ernest_Just.htm>.

Brown, Mitchell C. “Ernest Everett Just: Zoologist, Biologist, Physiologist, Research Scientist.” The Faces of Science: African Americans in Science. 25 Nov. 2007. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. <https://webfiles.uci.edu/mcbrown/display/just.html>.

Davis, Veronica A. “Roger Arliner Young.” Inspiring African American Women of Virginia. New

York: IUniverse, 2005. 249-51. Web.

“Ernest E. Just.” San José State University – Powering Silicon Valley. SJSU Virtual Museum. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://www.sjsu.edu/depts/Museum/ernest.html>.

“Ernest Everett Just Biography” BookRags.com. Web. 26 Oct. 2011.

<http://www.bookrags.com/biography/ernest-everett-just-wsd/>.

Manning, Kenneth R. “Roger Arliner Young: Scientist.” Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black 

Women. 6, no. 2 (Fall 1989) 3-7. http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/roger-

young-groundbreaking-zoologist. Web.

Manning, Kenneth R. The Society: Race, Gender and Science. History of Science Society, 1995.

http://www.hssonline.org/about/society_manning.html. Web.

Proffitt, Pamela. “Roger Arliner Young.” Notable Women Scientists. Detroit: Gale Group, 1999.

635-37. Print.

Warren, Wini. Black Women Scientists in the United States. Bloomington: Indiana University

Press, 1999. 287-295. Print.

“Aspire, SWE K-12.” The Society of Women Engineers. Web. 16 Nov. 2011.

<http://aspire.swe.org/>.

“Society of Women Engineers.” The Society of Women Engineers. Web. 16 Nov. 2011.

<http://societyofwomenengineers.swe.org/index.php>.

Society of Women Engineers

Thursday, December 1st, 2011

Society of Women Engineers was established in 1950.

There are nearly 20,000. It divides the United States into ten regions.

The SWE’s primary mission is to encourage women engineers to attain high levels of education and professional achievement.

Would Roger Arliner Young Join?

No, Roger Arliner Young would not join because she was a Zoologist and this organization is specifically for engineers.

However, this does support her views regarding education.  Young was a college professor at many different universities which shows she is interesting in education students so they can be successful in the science field.

A project Young would encourage is bringing engineering to the students in K-12 classrooms.  This encourages female students to per sue careers in science and that is exactly what Young worked toward.

Ada Byron: Countess of Lovelace

Thursday, December 1st, 2011

       ***The follwing is content satisfying the Freshman Seminar 100 Fall 2011 F8 Beauty and Brains — Women in Science course. 

              The scientist I have chosen is Ada Byron: Countess of Lovelace. She was born and raised in London, England to a famous poet Lord Byron and Anna Isabella Milbanke in 1815. The reason I chose Ada Byron is because she was one of the very few scientists I found when I was researching that was able to keep her femininity (as seen in her pictures too) while still engage in the “masculine”  mathematics and sciences. This truly intrigued me to choose her because she proved that she was able to stay a “woman” while making many contributions to the scientific community. She was also dedicated in getting the attention of other scientists   Her importance in society is that Byron became the first ever  female computer programmer and the founder of scientific computing. Her biggest accomplishment was the creation of the Analytical Engine, a calculation which was a revolution for the computer world. She also translated this document for Charles Babbage, who initially had the idea for the Analytical Engine, but was not able to go farther than just the idea. Byron considered herself both a metaphysician and an analyst. She passed away at the young age of 36, but her findings are still notable to this day.

           Ada Augusta Byron is a great role model for aspiring future scientists. Although her initial job was only to translate the Analytical Engine, she forever changed the field of computer science by going above and beyond in her work. Unlike a majority of other female scientists, Byron was able to keep her femininity and stay into her math and sciences, which I saw as a real way to be a role model because that it staying true to what you are without changing yourself to be accepted in a community.   Many women see her as such a role model that they are pushing for the creation of an Ada Byron Appreciation day, which would be celebrated October 7th. I personally will be celebrating her tomorrow!                                                                                           Some of this countess of Lovelace’s major accomplishments include being named not only the first female, but first person to be denoted as a computer programmer, with the input she gave Charles Babbage in her notes that she added while translating his papers. Although the Analytical Engine only existed in theory, she was able to make it come to life. The United States Department of Defense later recognized her accomplishment of this and honored her by naming a programming language “Ada” in 1979.

The male scientist I chose to be a foil for my female scientist, Ada Byron Lovelace was indeed the man who started her career, Charles Babbage. I chose Babbage because I thought it would be interesting to compare both of their work ethics in the computer science and mathematics field and who got farther with their research. They both lived in the same time period, so that did not create any mishap. They came from elite households in which they began their education with very qualified private tutors. In a sense they both have qualities in them that make them a “successful scientist”, according to Anne Roe, even though Byron is a woman and Roe specified her findings toward males. Byron did not have a father or father figure in her life, and Babbage was born with an illness that required him to be isolated for most of his childhood.

While comparing both of these scientists, I realized many things. Charles Babbage was a very successful innovator, known to have invented a handful of things that are important in our lives today, yet Ada Byron’s only accomplishment was her suggestion to use the Bernoulli numbers. Although this had been a very crucial suggestion that changed the the computer world today, she seemed to be more well-known than did Babbage.

With my research, I did not find that gender influenced their career much. Inversely, I saw that being a woman for Ada Byron actually helped her in a sense because she was a woman, and she was able to do something before a man, which was widely controversial.  While other female scientists that we have learned in our course have not been able to be credited for their findings. Anything I found related to the Analytical Engine credited both Babbage and Byron Lovelace, and surprisingly this machine was associated more with Byron even though this was originally Babbage’s idea.

The organization I ended up choosing was the National Foundation of Business and Professional Women. They were formed on July 1919, on the rise towards World War I, when the role of women was quickly changed and seen very important to this time’s society, so everyone thought it would be appropriate to receive the recognition they deserved. Their mission is to empower working women to achieve their full potential and partners with employers to build successful workplaces through education, research, knowledge and policy.

Although my scientist may not directly associate herself with this organization because she was not considered as a professional business woman, she would essentially support this group as she was for the growth of women in the math and sciences, and a group that would have an impact in that would definitely be in her favor. 

Annotated Biblography and Works Cited

Thursday, December 1st, 2011

PRIMARY SOURCES:

Byron, Ada. “Selections from Ada’s Notes.” Agnes Scott College . Toole, Betty Alexandra, n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2011. <http://www.agnesscott.edu/lriddle/women/ada-love.htm>.

             This publisher is very interested and educated on the life of Ada Lovelace, as many articles about Ada have been written by her. This article is followed by the notes written by Ada herself, as she recorded her experimentation with the Analytical Engine. Her notes display her sincere dedication towards this computing program. This is very reliable information since it was written by the scientist herself, and it gives her audience a picture of how much effort she put into the creation of the Analytical Engine. 

Douglass, Frederick. “The Countess of Lovelace.” Accessible Archives.  African American Newspapers, 23 Jan. 1853. Web. 10Sept.2011.<http://www.accessible.com/accessible/print?AADocList=5&AADocStyle=STYLED&AAStyleFile=&AABeanName=toc1&AANextPage=/printFullDocFromXML.jsp&AACheck=1.900.5.0.5>.

This primary source coming from the London Inquirer does a respectable job of giving a brief background on Ada Byron’s life but it is very vague and does not adequately highlight any of her accomplishments. It was disappointing that this being one of the few primary sources found on Ada, it included many pieces of irrelevant information, such as the “softness and darkness” of her hair. This source would not be recommended for any type of serious research on this woman scientist. 

SECONDARY SOURCES:

Moore, Doris Langley. “Ada Lovelace: Founder of Scientific Computing.” San Diego Supercomputer Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/lovelace.html>.

This source focused on her mother’s influence on her career, something none of the other sources really touched on. While most mothers in this era did not push their daughters towards any career field, Ada’s mother pushed her towards her education and even took her to collaborate with Mr. Babbage. Influential people in a scientist’s life are very important to be aware of because it gives the audience an insight on how the scientists were able to have the confidence to come about with their research.


Green, Christopher D. “Classics in the History of Psychology:Lovelace (1843).”Sketch of the Analytical Engine. N.p.Web. 10 Sept. 2011.<http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Lovelace/lovelace.htm >

This source goes in detail about the math required for the Analytical Engine. The presented information is the work of both Babbage and Byron in the path of making the Analytical Engine happen. Ada Byron also worked as a translator for Babbage, so all the research for the program was translated by her. This source is very informative for those wanting to understand how the Analytical Engine works, but does not include any biographical information.


Freeman, Elisabeth. “Ada and the Analytical Engine.” Educom Review. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2011. <http://net.educause.edu/apps/er/review/reviewArticles/31240.html

    This was the most detailed source I was able to find. Rather than being strictly a biography, this article gave in-depth information on how Ada Byron really contributed to the creation of the Analytical Engine. Without her, Babbage would have been unable to bring this idea to life and explain its uses to the outside world. While other sources merely mentioned Byron was the first female computer programmer, this article explained how she was able to do so without severe sexism.

 

Stansfier, Ryan . “Augusta Ada Byron.” Florida Institute of Technology. N.p., 24 Aug. 2004. Web. 10 Sept. 2011. <cs.fit.edu/~ryan/ada/lovelace.html>.

              This source highlighted the main points in Ada Byron’s life. A piece of relevant information obtained from this website was the dedication Ada had put in order to gain the attention from Babbage. Once he saw how hard she was trying to get his attention, he realized how talented she really was. This resource would have been very good, but it is lacking in-depth information.

 

Moore, Doris Langley. “Ada Lovelace: Founder of Scientific Computing.” San Diego Supercomputer Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/lovelace.html>.

              This source focused on her mother’s influence on her career, something none of the other sources really touched on. While most mothers in this era did not push their daughters towards any career field, Ada’s mother pushed her towards her education and even took her to collaborate with Mr. Babbage. Influential people in a scientist’s life are very important to be aware of because it gives the audience an insight on how the scientists were able to have the confidence to come about with their research

 

PRESENTATION WORKS CITED:

Swade, Doron. The Difference Engine: Charles Babbage and the Quest   to Build the First Computer. New York: Viking, 2000.

Babbage, Charles (1791 – 1871). (2002). In The Cambridge Dictionary of   Scientists. Retrieved from   http://www.credoreference.com/entry/dicscientist/babbag  e_charles_1791_1871


Moore, Doris Langley. “Ada Lovelace: Founder of Scientific   Computing.” 
San Diego Supercomputer Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 11   Sept. 2011.   <http://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/lovelace.html>.

“Current Statistics for Women in Computing.” CSSU | Computer Science Student   Union. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. <http://www.cssu-  bg.org/WomeninCS/current_statistics.php>.

Green, Christopher D. “Classics in the History of Psychology:Lovelace (1843).”Sketch of the Analytical Engine. N.p.Web. 10 Sept. 2011.

<http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Lovelace/lovelace.htm >

Stansfier, Ryan . “Augusta Ada Byron.” Florida Institute of Technology. N.p., 24 Aug. 2004. Web. 10 Sept. 2011. <cs.fit.edu/~ryan/ada/lovelace.html>.

Moore, Doris Langley. “Ada Lovelace: Founder of Scientific Computing.” San Diego Supercomputer Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2011. <http://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/lovelace.html>.

Freeman, Elisabeth. “Ada and the Analytical Engine.” EducomReview. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2011. <http://net.educause.edu/apps/er/review/reviewArticles/31240.html>.

Douglass, Frederick. “The Countess of Lovelace.” Accessible Archives.  African American Newspapers, 23 Jan. 1853. Web. 10 Sept. 2011. <http://www.accessible.com/accessible/print?AADocList=5&AADocStyle=STYLED&AAStyleFile=&AABeanName=toc1&AANextPage=/printFullDocFromXML.jsp&AACheck=1.900.5.0.5>.

Byron, Ada. “Selections from Ada’s Notes.” Agnes Scott College . Toole, Betty Alexandra, n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2011. http://www.agnesscott.edu/lriddle/women/ada-love.htm>.

 http://www.harkavagrant.com/index.php?id=298

“About BPW Foundation.” Business and Professional Women’s   Foundation. Web. 12 Nov. 2011.   <http://www.bpwfoundation.org/index.php/about/>.

“Business and Professional Women’s Foundation.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 13 Nov. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_and_Professional_Women’s_Foundation>.