Archive for the ‘fsem’ Category

Bibliography; Roger Arliner Young

Tuesday, September 13th, 2011

Primary Sources:

Heilbrunn, L. V., and Roger A. Young. “Indirect Effects of Radiation on Sea Urchin Eggs.”

Biological Bulletin (1935).

This is Roger Arliner Young and L. V. Heilbrunn’s scientific journal of their experiment “Indirect Effects of Radiation on Sea Urchin Eggs.” This experiment concluded that when sea urchin eggs are in the presence of ovarian tissue the effect of the radiation is more pronounced. This source does not necessarily give information about Young’s life or hardships, however it shows he passion and interest in zoology.  This is proof that women and men are equally as talented in biology.  This is a primary source, therefore it is very reliable and accurate.


Secondary Sources:

Davis, Veronica A. “Roger Arliner Young.” Inspiring African American Women of Virginia. New

York: IUniverse, 2005. 249-51. Web.

This source was available on Google Books.

Roger Arliner Young was very successful although she faced many challenges in her life.  She was a good student until she found her course load to be unbearable to keep up with while supporting her ill mother and herself.  In order to do so, she began to sell her works.  This act of desperation proved to be a huge accomplishment allowing Young to become one of the leading female biologist of her era.  This source has a list of her accomplishments by date, as well as her published works and memberships.  This is a very helpful and reliable source.


Manning, Kenneth R. “Roger Arliner Young: Scientist.” Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black 

Women. 6, no. 2 (Fall 1989) 3-7.

This section regarding Young and Just was published online and can be found at

This source discusses many of the problems and difficulties Young faced. “Her story is one of grit and perseverance” due to the fact she was juggling research, teaching, and caring for her invalid mother.  This source then discusses her studies at Howard University under Ernest Everett Just.  After accomplishing so much and becoming the first African American woman to receive a doctorate in zoology, she was fired for missing class and mistreating lab equipment.  This excerpt shows the struggles Young faced and the relationships she built along the way.


Manning, Kenneth R. The Society: Race, Gender and Science. History of Science Society, 1995.


This section regarding race and gender in science can be found online at

The Society discusses “the emergence and experience of women and African Americans as working scientists and as members of the scientific community.” This source writes about individual biographies and experience as well as an overview of social and cultural content.  Many African American scientists, both male and female, faced racial discrimination and were handicapped by who they were.  Young in particular faced financial problems and anxiety to the point where she was placed in a mental hospital.  This source was very well written and accurate when placed against other sources.


Warren, Wini. Black Women Scientists in the United States. Bloomington: Indiana University

Press, 1999. 287-295. Print.

This source discussed the relationship and works between Young and Just.  It quotes Young directly and gives the reader insight to her feelings of stress, exhaustion, and thoughts of failure during her experiments.  Near the end of Young’s career she faced many problems with Just.  His had a negative attitude toward her resulted in the termination of her work in 1936. This source was very helpful because it gives the reader quotes from Young and the difficulties she faced.


Tertiary Sources:

Proffitt, Pamela. “Roger Arliner Young.” Notable Women Scientists. Detroit: Gale Group, 1999.

635-37. Print.

This resource provides general information regarding Young’s early education through her post doctorate career.  This source does not necessarily go in depth about Young’s life and accomplishments, however it summarizes important events. Each of the six sections are cohesive and easy to understand, allowing the reader quick access to Young’s life.  This tertiary source was very helpful by pointing the reader to other secondary sources.

Roger Arliner Young (1899–1964); Zoologist Introduction

Thursday, September 1st, 2011

Hello, my name is Christine Valvo and I am currently a freshmen at the University of Mary Washington.  This site is an aggregate of work I have submitted to my Freshman Seminar (FSEM 100 F8 Beauty and Brains–Women in the Sciences). I have investigated and wrote about Roger Arliner Young.  These posts are an attempt to share my knowledge, information, and interests.  I have been exploring her life, contributions, and the impact and challenges she faced during her career.  These posts should not be used as primary reference material for any academic work (e.g., class paper).   A bibliography of relevant sources is posted as a reference guide for others.